How goes, internet.
The following are places where more information is available, and I've copied transient data as best I can in case more people disappear their entire accounts.
Alex, better known as /u/MeetWayneKerr, answered a handful of questions in a Vice article.
Awesome post, thank you for this. Also you're forgetting the atmosphere composition of planets was showed in the Colbert interview. I was hoping for some planets to be Venusian with a heavy atmosphere that you'd have to upgrade your ship or exosuit to enter. Also it may be just me but every planet I've encountered, hell even MOON I've encountered has some kind of an atmosphere? Source
Stephen > Do you ever get to see ourselves?
Sean > No, you don't see yourself, so the only way for you to know what you look like is for someone else to see you.
Stephen > Can you run into other people, other players on the game?
Sean > Yes ...
Source Video | Source Post
The raw paste only goes up to the 4th edit while the original post goes to the 6th. The 5th and 6th edit include corrections that there are moving bits on buildings (satellites) and rivers are confirmed to be in (though with no flow). Snapshot of the most recent edits before the post was deleted: https://archive.is/OCNdQ
Here are my additional notes I was hoping the original poster would have added that are missing in the current game but were shown in trailers/interviews/articles:
Almost pure white snowy planets are not in the current game (think of Hoth). Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nmwG6Sj1Yfg&feature=youtu.be&t=53s
Freighters being competent against pirates. Currently freighters appear to fire randomly at pirates and you have to destroy all 20+ ships by yourself. Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CLcjvIQJns0&feature=youtu.be&t=11m30s
Stealth capability and running from fights. Currently no cloaking and ships pursue you until you jump out or defeat them. Also "Upgrades will be more than simply more power or rate of fire" which is not true in the current game (/u/Matt872000 caught this). Article page: http://i.imgur.com/O8kKZIf.jpg (Full: http://imgur.com/a/O3HEp#0)
Atmospheric composition when discovering the planet. Like 12% Oxycen and 88% Hyglese, basically a bunch of elements no longer exist in the game just to dumb things down. Though pointless, it's kind of an immersion thing that didn't need to be cut. Atmospheric composition source: https://youtu.be/ZqeN6hj4dZU?t=3m11s
Animals generated based on planet types and environment. Current game lacks any of that, you will find herbivore animals on planets classified as nonexistent flora when you discover it. (aside from zinc, titanium, etc plants which shouldn't count)
More advanced crafting/Crafting that requires figuring out recipes. Source: https://youtu.be/BXUrOFVItgs?t=2m8s and https://youtu.be/BXUrOFVItgs?t=2m33s (Wait, this is already in the original post, my bad lol)
These are linked to from the second megathread. Thank you /u/Undust4able for linking this site in that thread.